In recent years, many night-life options have opened up in Catherine Park as well as in shopping malls such as IST in Xinjiekou and Kingmo near Baijai Lake metro station. [22] In English, the spelling Nanking has been traditional until Pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as "Nanjing". Nanjing has some of the oldest and finest museums in China. [53], A monument to the huge human cost of some of the gigantic construction projects of the early Ming dynasty is the Yangshan Quarry (located some 15–20 km (9–12 mi) east of the walled city and Ming Xiaoling mausoleum), where a gigantic stele, cut on the orders of the Yongle Emperor, lies abandoned, just as it was left 600 years ago when it was understood it was impossible to move or complete it. [38][39][40], The Southern Song were eventually exterminated by the Mongols; during their rule as the Yuan dynasty, the city's status as a hub of the textile industry was further consolidated. The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). The siege lasted almost three weeks, beginning on August 24. Nanjing, with a total land area of 6,598 km2 (2,548 sq mi), is situated in the heartland of the drainage area of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and in the Yangtze River Delta, one of the largest economic zones of China. Among all 17 railway stations in Nanjing, passenger rail service is mainly provided by Nanjing Railway Station and Nanjing South Railway Station, while other stations like Nanjing West Railway Station, Zhonghuamen Railway Station and Xianlin Railway Station serve minor roles. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. [48] On 24 February 1425, he appointed Admiral Zheng He as the defender of Nanjing and ordered him to continue his command over the Ming treasure fleet for the city's defense.[48]. Tunnel, Heyan Rd. One third of the city population worked in the service industry, . [96] Officials blamed the dense pollution on lack of wind, automobile exhaust emissions under low air pressure, and coal-powered district heating system in north China. [114] Construction of Nanjing South Station began on 10 January 2008. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. They sometimes went door-to-door, dragging out women and even small children and violently gang-raping them. There are two major sports centers in Nanjing, Wutaishan Sports Center and Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. Zhang, Chunhou. Home » History of Nanking Massacre. The Nanjing Atrocities: Crimes of War online companion to our print book includes a rich multimedia collection of maps, videos, timelines, and teaching strategies that place the Nanjing Atrocities within the larger context of World War II in East Asia, and will challenge students to consider the complex questions this history raises about wartime violence, justice, and memory. The old Mission property would become the No. Takashi Yoshida: The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States - Sprache: Englisch. [78] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing. The Imperial Japanese Army Forces, across six weeks, stormed the city of Nanking and savagely murdered and raped thousands of civilians and soldiers. The city is also one of the fifteen sub-provincial cities in the People's Republic of China's administrative structure,[9] enjoying jurisdictional and economic autonomy only slightly less than that of a province. From the 1960s to 1980s there were five pillar industries, namely, electronics, automobiles, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. When it was the capital of China, for instance under the ROC, Jing (京; 'Capital') was adopted as the abbreviation of Nanjing. Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary. [141] Jiangsu Nangang Basketball Club is a competitive team which has long been one of the major clubs fighting for the title in China top level league, CBA. (南京為中國古都,在北京之前,而其位置乃在一美善之地區。其地有高山,有深水,有平原,此三種天工,鐘毓一處,在世界中之大都市誠難覓如此佳境也。而又恰居長江下游兩岸最豐富區域之中心...)[86], To be more exact, surrounded by the Yangtze River and mountains, the urban area of the city enjoys its scenic natural environment. Begun in 1960 and opened to traffic in 1968, the bridge is a two-tiered road and rail design spanning 4,600 meters on the upper deck, with approximately 1,580 meters spanning the river itself. [44] The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved. In 1999, 77,394 residents belonged to officially defined minorities, among which the vast majority (64,832) were Hui, contributing 83.76 percent to the minority population. [21] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. In 1928, the Chinese Nationalist Government moved the capital of China from Peking (Beijing) to Nanking. Shufen Liu, "Jiankang and the Commercial Empire of the Southern Dynasties", in Pearce, Spiro, Ebrey eds. [128] Nanjing is also the biggest container port along the Yangtze River; in March 2004, the one million container-capacity base, Longtan Containers Port Area opened, further consolidating Nanjing as the leading port in the region. [130] CSC Jinling has a large shipyard.[131]. [111] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. Jinling City, 333 BCE), Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sunshine data 1971–2000), Former Central Committee of KMT Buildings (, Nanking Officials Residence Cluster along Yihe Road (, Former Republic of China Military Academy Buildings (, Former Bank of China Nanking Branch Building (, Former Bank of Communications Nanking Branch Building (, Former Central Bank of ROC Nanking Branch Building (, Former Macklin Hospital Buildings (Gulou Hospital) (, Aviation Martyrs of WWII Memorial Cemetery (, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 19:47. Nanjing was threatened to be invaded by British troops during the close of the First Opium War, which was ended by the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. Nanjing (listen), alternatively romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with 11 districts, Nanjing has an administrative area of 6,600 km (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,505,500 as of 2019 . [127] The port area is 98 km (61 mi) in length and has 64 berths including 16 berths for ships with a tonnage of more than 10,000. Nanjing is one of the top three Chinese scientific research centers (behind Beijing and Shanghai), according to the Nature Index,[15] especially strong in the chemical sciences. [46] The Jianwen Emperor ruled from 1398 to 1402. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. 10 November: City besieged by Manchu forces. Sun Yat-sen once summarized and lauded the feature of Nanjing in his book The International Development of China (建國方略): Nanking was the old capital of China before Peking, and is situated in a fine locality which comprises high mountains, deep water and a vast level plain—a rare site to be found in any part of the world. However another version held by most historians, is … Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. [19] This city would soon play a vital role in the following centuries. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. [115] The station was opened for public service in 2011.[116]. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from −14.0 °C (7 °F) on 6 January 1955 to 40.7 °C (105 °F) on 22 August 1959. [56][57] His short reign was described by later historians as the first reign of the so-called Southern Ming dynasty. Nanjing Library, founded in 1907, houses more than 10 million volumes of printed materials and is the third largest library in China, after the National Library in Beijing and Shanghai Library. Many universities in Nanjing have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City in the eastern suburb.

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