They considered baking with purchased pie crusts like cheating; it would have been too easy. The collection was done with permission of doctors Bassirou Diallo (ISRA) from Senegal and Nenonene Amen Yawo (ESA) from Togo. Identifying specific morphological traits related to the genetic groups is a very useful way to study diversity in the field, and morphology could help design conservation strategies that maximize genetic diversity. No, Is the Subject Area "Togo" applicable to this article? “Tropical accession” also had very specific traits: the number of lobes, type of central lobe of the leaf, and pubescence (S8 Table). The common name of any plant can differ region to region. Weekly, she sent me and my sisters to a small market that sold collards, turnips, sweet potatoes, and other fresh fruits and vegetables grown from the owner’s farm. But in all seriousness, sweet potato’s are one of the few natural rat repellents. On a baking sheet lined with aluminum foil, prick sweet potatoes all over with a fork. Sweet Potatoes and Yams The phylogram was visualized using the international tree of life: Itoel Program v2 [27]. Using this method, only 12 individuals have changed their place for K = 3, 6 for K = 4 and 16 for K = 5. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s013. Yams, however, are a totally different vegetable that either type of sweet potato, with a white inside and a dark, nearly black skin. Unfortunately, morphological characteristics can vary because of trait plasticity [17] and it has been shown that the environment can affect the phenotypic traits [18]. DNA was extracted from dried young leaves (10 to 25 mg) following the method of Doyle and Doyle [23] adding 2% (w/v) of cetyl-tri-methyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) and 2% (w/v) of sodium sulfite. Twelve microsatellite (SSRs) previously designed for sweet potato [24] were used (S2 Table). For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click At Sunday dinners, as we sat at the dinner table, my mother boasted about the wonderful job we did in selecting sweet potatoes, collards and other edibles. Many of these are unique to a particular country or region. Indeed, the DAPC clearly separated individual into groups with K = 3, 4, and 5. Place pieces in pan and cover in olive oil. “Kūmara,” the Maori word for sweet potato, closely resembles “kumar” in the Peruvian native language Quechua. Ptilinopus 13:52, 25 November 2012 (UTC) Sweet Potato Colors and Species. We considered the genetic group to be associated with morphological differences when the test was significant with a Bonferroni corrected p-value of 0.0024. Cornmeal adds crunch, and mashed sweet potatoes lend creaminess to this weekend favorite. Did I mention that my sister possesses these same culinary skills? However, these carryovers are also present in our everyday use of sweet potatoes in dishes such souffles, pies and casseroles, among other inventions. Only the third axis was significant when the whole sample was tested (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.001) but not if we only included Togo (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.26). Communication is difficult at best. Adaptation of agriculture has been suggested as a way to maintain productivity. The morphological characteristics of the leaf and stem were recorded 90 days after planting. We genotyped all 132 individuals sweet potato plants from Togo and Senegal (S1 Table). The first axis mainly represents the south/north gradient from a tropical humid zone (Danyi-Peyeyeme) to the northern Togo tropical arid zone (Village of Gabonbong), and then to the drier part of Senegal (S6 Fig). The red-purplish skin hides a delicious golden inside. Bake until tender, 45 to 50 minutes. The genetic groups were closely linked to geographic regions with different climatic conditions. As of 2013, there are approximately 7,000 sweet potato cultivars. To choose K, which describes our dataset well, we ran successive Ks (3, 4, 5, 6) to run DAPC. Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, a root vegetable most commonly known as taro (/ ˈ t ɑː r oʊ, ˈ t æ r oʊ /), kalo (see §Names and etymology for an extensive list), or godere.It is the most widely cultivated species of several plants in the family Araceae that are used as vegetables for their corms, leaves, and petioles. And, unless you shop in a specialty store, it’s likely that you’ve only purchased sweet potatoes (even if they were labeled as yams).In the US, sweet potatoes are the sweet, orange potato typically found in supermarkets. Yellow- or white-fleshed sweet potatoes have a dry and crumbly texture when baked and are not moist enough to make tender pancakes, so use the orange variety. But when K = 6 the groups were not clearly delimited in the two datasets. Amendoro specializes in a number of desserts crafted out of high quality sweet potato. To do so, for each accession we downloaded the BIOCLIM data [32] composed of 19 bioclimatic variables and monthly climate data (temperature and precipitation). Wilcoxon paired tests were then performed for each significant trait to assess which specific genetic group differed significantly from the others. The field was weeded manually with a hoe and watered if necessary. Citation: Glato K, Aidam A, Kane NA, Bassirou D, Couderc M, Zekraoui L, et al. In each case, in addition to the six common traits, we found the secondary color of the skin, pubescence, type of leaf lobe for K = 4, and petiole color, pubescence, and type of leaf lobe type for K = 5 (Table 2). Sweet potatoes generally have an orange flesh and a maroon or copper skin. For K = 4 and K = 5, nine traits were associated. Sweet potato is a staple food, ranking seventh among food crops in annual production in the world [4] and fifth for its caloric contribution in developing countries after rice, wheat, maize and cassava [5]. The local name and the genetic group agreed in only 25% of the cases. The bootstrap value is given on the branch of the tree. Slice the potato lengthwise and serve with butter, salt, pepper, and/or brown sugar as desired. The three other genetic groups: “Tropical arid accessions”, “Tropical-Sahelian accessions group 1” and “Tropical-Saharan accessions group 2” contained accessions from both Togo and Senegal. There's also a version of sweet potato that has a thin yellow skin and yellow flesh, though those are less common. Because of her upbringing on a rural farm, my mother saw high value in sweet potatoes and other farm-grown vegetables because of their freshness. This cultural carryover, the love for sweet potatoes, gets more pronounced during the holiday seasons and at events like the MOJA Cultural Arts Festival in Charleston, which celebrates the contributions African American and Caribbean cultures made to the American and international landscapes. Sweet potato is not a major crop in Togo or Senegal, and some farmers may thus not pay much attention to the phenotypic variability of the plant. The group subdivision obtained was clear when we moved from K = 3 to K = 4 and K = 5. (2017) Structure of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) diversity in West Africa covaries with a climatic gradient. In the United States, the terms “yam” and “sweet potato” are used interchangeably, but they are completely different vegetables. Incidentally, yams and sweet potatoes are different. Therefore, to honor those West African ancestral connections, Gullah people recognize sweet tata and other foods as a major part of our cultural identity. This can be explained by frequent exchanges between villages in Togo because farmers go to other villages to look for work. Different genotypes from different genetic clusters were generally found within the villages. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 06°10’27.2” E 001°12’ 39.6”N). We ran this test with the 21 morphological traits recorded. The questions we addressed in this study are: i) how is sweet potato structured along the environmental gradient from the Tropics to the Sahel? Yada et al. [24] with slight modifications. The trial was performed on a 300 m2 plot (30 m × 10 m). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.g004. The Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was domesticated in Central and South America and was later introduced into Africa and is now cultivated throughout tropical Africa. The relationship between a genetic group and specific geographical features has been previously reported [24]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0177697.s008. Under this scenario, West Africa sweet potato is derived from East African sweet potato. The different genetic groups were also distinguished by the 21 agro-morphological traits (Table 2). This is reflected in the way my mother raised me. That means there are more than 50 different ways to say sweet potato, from "acok" in Ateso, the language spoken by the people showing off their drying rock, to "maku" in Lugbara. When K = 3, seven traits were associated. The table show the p-value obtained with Wilcoxon-Paired test between different dataset. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. In the tropical-arid accessions, most of the accessions sampled in Togo were from the northern part of the country, where the climate is arid. This particular structure of diversity along a climatic gradient with association to phenotypic variability can be used for conservation strategies. In this research the storage performance of sweet potato roots in an evaporative cooling barn was investigated with three different pre-storage treatments - ash, brine and Lantana camara extract to evaluate their effects on weight loss, shrinkage, weevil damage, sprouting and decay over 12 … The second group, called “Tropical accessions”, contained 27 accessions all from Togo. There are a ton of different kinds of sweet potatoes from Beauregard to Regal, but it’s hard to find most of them in the store. For one sweet potato, microwave on 100 percent power for 5 minutes, rotating halfway through. No, Is the Subject Area "Leaves" applicable to this article? 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